Want to avoid making punctuation errors? Grammarly will make sure your writing is clear and mistake-free. Get Grammarly. You could do it like this:.
John said he hated when it was hot outside. The first sentence contains a direct quotea quote in which you report the exact words John used. The second sentence contains an indirect quotewhich is a paraphrased version of what John said.
Quotation marks are used only with direct quotes. Direct quotations come in two different forms: run-in and block. Run-in quotations are shorter and they are formatted the same as the surrounding text.
Punctuation Marks List, Meaning & Example Sentences
Block quotes are long quotes that are separated from the surrounding text. Usually, they appear as a separate paragraph or series of paragraphs with a different font, a change in the line spacing, or a wider margin. If you have to follow a style guide, you should check it for best practices.
The person reading your work needs to know where the quote starts and where it ends. What about some trickier quotation mark rules?
Does punctuation go inside or outside quotation marks?
This question mostly refers to the sentence-ending punctuation marks— punctuation marks that introduce a quote are never placed within quotation marks. Sentence-ending punctuation is a whole different story. In the United States, the rule of thumb is that commas and periods always go inside the quotation marks, and colons and semicolons dashes as well go outside :.
If they apply to the quoted material, they go within the quotation marks. If they apply to the whole sentence, they go outside it :.
So now you know how to deal with quotation marks and punctuation and capitalization, but what if the quote you want to take already contains quotation marks? This can happen, too. Say you want to write a direct quote in which someone is praising their favorite chapter from one of the Harry Potter books.
Would you do it like this? You might even manage to confuse your word processing program. But if you do it like this, everything will look much better:. Titles of books, albums, magazines, newspapers, and other standalone and bigger bodies of work are usually italicized. Poems, chapters, articles—smaller bodies of work, or bodies of work which form a larger body of work—are emphasized by using quotation marks.
You can also use quotation marks to signify words used as words. Some writers put quotes around words they want to distance themselves from. Quotation marks used this way are commonly called scare quotes or shudder quotes.Unix system engineer resume
It only takes a minute to sign up. To make it clearer, I am referring to placing the comma when the quoted sentence already has a punctuation like the exclamation mark, or the question mark.
American style is to place the comma inside the quotes. The only exception is is in academic works, particularly philosophy texts, where a word is being specially defined and offset with single quotes. That exception, however, is not widespread and some houses, such as Oxford University Press, use the single quote as closing punctuation. American usage is "yes," it should be inside the quotes even if it is not part of the quotation.
British usage has it outside unless it is part of the quotation as far as I know. Note that it is becoming increasingly common in American usage to move the comma outside of the quote because there is a growing subset of the population who use string literals in programming and the comma is not part of the data. The "Comma in the Quotes" rule is still expected however. Sign up to join this community.
The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Punctuations for quotes in a list Ask Question. Asked 9 years, 9 months ago. Active 4 years, 6 months ago. Viewed 35k times. Should the comma be placed inside the quotes, or outside? Active Oldest Votes. The Raven The Raven The punctuation-inside rule has always irritated me to no end, even before I got into programming.
This is one of many illogical, yet "proper" rules that exacerbate confusion of the English language. I personally always use punctuation-outside-of-quotes format unless the punctuation was part of the original text for exactly the reason you specify: as both a writer and a software guy, I find it misleading and imprecise to include punctuation inside quotation marks that isn't actually part of the quote. I usually use out-of-quotes for phrases. For an extreme version of punctuation within quotes, see this statistics paper which mentions a pseudonym-using writer called "Student" with quotation marks as part of his nom de plume.
Examples in the text include "Student's", "Student,", "Student. The Overflow Blog. Hat season is on its way! Join us for Winter Bash Featured on Meta. New Feature: Table Support. Linked 1. Related Hot Network Questions.Quotation marksalso known as quotesquote marksspeech marksinverted commasor talking marks  are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speecha quotationor a phrase.
The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. The single quotation mark is traced to Ancient Greek practice, adopted and adapted by monastic copyists.
Hanc scriptores nostri adponunt in libris ecclesiasticorum virorum ad separanda vel [ad] demonstranda testimonia sanctarum Scripturarum. Our copyists place this sign in the books of the people of the Church, to separate or to indicate the quotations drawn from the Holy Scriptures. The double quotation mark derives from a marginal notation used in fifteenth-century manuscript annotations to indicate a passage of particular importance not necessarily a quotation ; the notation was placed in the outside margin of the page and was repeated alongside each line of the passage.
After the publication of Filelfo's edition, the quotation marks for literal quotations prevailed. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century. The usage of a pair of marks, opening and closing, at the level of lower case letters was generalized.
By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific within each region. In Western Europe the custom became to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing outward.
Some authors  claim that the reason for this was a practical one, in order to get a character that was clearly distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas and the parentheses. Also, in other scripts, the angular quotation marks are distinguishable from other punctuation characters—the Greek breathing marksthe Armenian emphasis and apostrophethe Arabic commadecimal separatorthousands separatoretc. Other authors  claim that the reason for this was an aesthetic one.
The elevated quotation marks created an extra white space before and after the word that was considered aesthetically unpleasing, while the in-line quotation marks helped to maintain the typographical colorsince the quotation marks had the same height and were aligned with the lower case letters. In Central Europehowever, the practice was to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity pointing inward.
The French tradition prevailed in North-Eastern Europe Russia, Ukraine and Belaruswhereas the German tradition, or its modified version with the closing mark pointing rightward has become dominant in South-Eastern Europe, i. The single quotation marks re-emerged around as a means of indicating a secondary level of quotation.
In American writing, quotation marks are normally the double kind the primary style. If quotation marks are used inside another pair of quotation marks, then single quotation marks are used. For example: "Didn't she say 'I like red best' when I asked her wine preferences?
If another set of quotation marks is nested inside single quotation marks, double quotation marks are used again, and they continue to alternate as necessary though this is rarely done. British publishing is regarded as more flexible about whether double or single quotation marks should be used. Different varieties and styles of English have different conventions regarding whether terminal punctuation should be written inside or outside the quotation marks; North American printing usually puts full stops and commas but not exclamation or question marks, or colons or semi-colons inside the closing quotation mark, whether it is part of the original quoted material or not.
The closing single quotation mark is identical in form to the apostrophe and similar to the prime symbol. The double quotation mark is identical to the ditto mark in English-language usage. It is also similar to—and often used to represent—the double prime symbol.
However, the quotation marks, the apostrophe, and the prime serve quite different purposes. Other languages have similar conventions to English, but use different symbols or different placement.Quotations marks can be used around expressions to offset or call them out from the other text. Quotation marks may be used around mottos, slang, and unspoken dialogue, too. Sometimes, they are used for translations of foreign terms.
Another use is around single letters within a sentence, e. They are also used to enclose article titles or parts of a document, e.Cover letter civil engineering job
Book titles are italicized. In American usage, punctuation that goes inside the closing quotation mark includes a period or comma. In British usage, the period and the comma go outside the quotation mark. The colon, semicolon, dash, question mark, and exclamation point fall inside quotation marks if they belong with the quoted matter i. For quotations which extend beyond one paragraph, a quotation mark begins each paragraph and the closing quotation mark is at the end of the last paragraph.
Some writers put a comma before a quotation and some leave it out. Either way, make sure your writing is consistent. Want fun word activities and more tips to help kids build their vocabulary and love of words?Poetry quotes about unrequited love quotes and sayings
Sign up for Dictionary. What are quotation marks? How else are quotation marks used? How do you punctuate with quotation marks?This page contains quotation marks of all kinds extracted from different Unicode sections. This punctuation mark is a paired one. They designate a direct speech, or a word that is used in a meaning that does not correspond to the usual speech, for example, in the opposite.
There are several kinds of quotation marks. Names went from the country where they were invented and from the similarity of the outline with some objects. In different scripts different quotation marks are used according to Probably, traditions. Yes, there are punctuation rules, but they do not stipulate the form. There are norms of typographical set for which ordinary people can nachat. If you want to put them inside an already quoted part of the text, the symbols of the external and internal must be different.
In addition, when writing by hand and in print, the form may not be the same. In the good old days, when I was still writing with my hand, always used the so-called Polish see below.
However, and the font does not exactly match the quotation marks. Introduce the rules for quotation marks, for Slavic scripts, the first was Constantine the Philosopher. In the XV century, he wrote a treatise on the writing.
There it was suggested that the quotations from some church texts should be marked with special symbols. Use in different languages. The rules are not strict if at alldo not be surprised if they are poorly observed. It is more interesting, why in Sweden not Swedish backquotes are used. Basic and spare put inside the main, if necessary :. Many of these icons are symmetrical in the horizontal plane.Grammarly can save you from misspellings, grammatical and punctuation mistakes, and other writing issues on all your favorite websites.
Read on to find out. Why would you ever have a quotation within a quotation? Lots of reasons. For example, a character in a story may quote someone else aloud. The example above uses American-style quotation marks. The main quote is enclosed in double quotation marks. The quote within the quote, Do unto others as you would have them do unto youis enclosed in single quotation marks.
The British convention is the opposite; the main quote would use single quotation marks and the quote within the quote would use double quotation marks. How do you quote a quote? In American English, use double quotes for the outside quote and single quotes for the inside quote. In British English, do the opposite. I remember our father having strong opinions about many things. In the introduction of the book, the author describes a memory of his father. Real-time suggestions, wherever you write.Informal English with ellipsis - Canguro English
How to Quote a Quote? Brittney Ross. In American English, use double quotation marks for quotations and single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. In British English, use single quotation marks for quotations and double quotation marks for quotations within quotations.
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Grammar Tone vs. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. Write with confidence. Get real-time suggestions wherever you write.There are 14 punctuation marks that are commonly used in English grammar.
They are the period, question mark, exclamation point, comma, semicolon, colon, dash, hyphen, parentheses, brackets, braces, apostrophe, quotation marks, and ellipsis. Following their correct usage will make your writing easier to read and more appealing.
What Are the 14 Punctuation Marks in English Grammar?
Three of the fourteen punctuation marks are appropriate for use as sentence endings. They are the period, question mark, and exclamation point. The period. Use a question mark? The exclamation point! The comma, semicolon, and colon are often misused because they all can indicate a pause in a series. The comma is used to show a separation of ideas or elements within the structure of a sentence.
Additionally, it is used in numbers, dates, and letter writing after the salutation and closing. Whether to add a final comma before the conjunction in a list is a matter of debate. This final comma, known as an Oxford or serial comma, is useful in a complex series of elements or phrases but is often considered unnecessary in a simple series such as in the example above.
It usually comes down to a style choice by the writer. The semicolon ; is used to connect independent clauses. It shows a closer relationship between the clauses than a period would show. A colon : has three main uses. The first is after a word introducing a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series.
The second is between independent clauses when the second explains the first, similar to a semicolon:. Two other common punctuation marks are the dash and hyphen. These marks are often confused with each other due to their appearance but they are very different. A dash is used to separate words into statements. There are two common types of dashes: en dash and em dash. A hyphen is used to join two or more words together into a compound term and is not separated by spaces.
For example, part-time, back-to-back, well-known. Bracketsbraces, and parentheses are symbols used to contain words that are a further explanation or are considered a group.
Brackets are the squared off notations  used for technical explanations or to clarify meaning. If you remove the information in the brackets, the sentence will still make sense. They are not commonplace in most writing but can be seen in computer programming to show what should be contained within the same lines. They can also be used in mathematical expressions.
Parentheses are curved notations used to contain further thoughts or qualifying remarks. However, parentheses can be replaced by commas without changing the meaning in most cases. The final three punctuation forms in English grammar are the apostrophequotation marks, and ellipsis. Unlike previously mentioned grammatical marks, they are not related to one another in any form.Thesis mistakes
An apostrophe ' is used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of lowercase letters. Examples of the apostrophe in use include:. Quotations marks " " are a pair of punctuation marks used primarily to mark the beginning and end of a passage attributed to another and repeated word for word.
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